The tribe Melolonthini is composed by the biggest and more beautiful representatives of Melolonthidae.
In the Palaearctic region it comprises about 190 species grouped in 16 genera: Achranoxia Kraatz, 1888 (8 species), Anoxia Laporte, 1832 (34 species in 3 subgenera), Anoxioides Petrovitz, 1871 (1 species), Clypeolontha Li and Yang, 1999 (1 species), Cryptotrogus Kraatz, 1888 (11 species), Cyphonotus Ficher, 1824 (2 species), Cyphonoxia Reitter, 1889 (9 species), Exolontha Reitter, 1902 (12 species), Euranoxia Semenov, 1890 (1 species), Melolontha Fabricius, 1775 (59 species in 2 subgenera), Microphylla Kraatz, 1890 (1 species), Oligoplylla Kraatz, 1894 (2 species), Polyphylla Harris, 1841 (34 species in 7 subgenera), Schoenherria Burmeister, 1855 (1 species), Sphodroxia Kraatz, 1890 (5 species) and Tricholontha Nomura, 1952 (1 species).

Several genera have been the object of different revisions aiming to relate the different species often described on few specimens from spotted localities. The result is quite unsatisfactory and several genera created, like for the Pachydemini, on the number and shape of antennomera can be probably merged giving a better understanding of the phylogenesis of the species.

In the Levant only 6 genera (Anoxia, Anoxioides, Cryptotrogus, Cyphonoxia, Melolontha and Polyphylla) are recorded and 14 species need to be kept under consideration.

Genus Anoxia Laporte, 1832

The genus Anoxia is present only in the Palaearctic region and comprises 34 species in 3 subgenera: Anoxia Laporte, 1832 (17 species), Mesanoxia Medvedev, 1551 (9 species) and Protanoxia Medvedev, 1951 (8 species). J.Baraud provided a revision of the genus in ??

Anoxia (Anoxia) asiatica Desbrochers des Loges, 1872
Anoxia (Anoxia) maculiventris Reitter, 1890
Anoxia (Anoxia) naviauxi Baraud, 1990
Anoxia (Mesanoxia) cypria Zurcher, 1911
Anoxia (Protanoxia) cingulata Marseul, 1868
Anoxia (Protanoxia) laevimacula Petrovitz, 1973
Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis Krynicki, 1832

Genus Anoxioides Petrovitz, 1971

The genus Anoxioides was created by Petrovitz for its single species: Anoxioides bytinskisalzi Petrovitz, 1971.

Anoxioides bytinskisalzi Petrovitz, 1971

Genus Cryptotrogus Kraatz, 1888

The genus Cryptotrogus is present only in the Middle East and comprises 11 species described from scattered localities.

Cryptotrogus weisei Kraatz, 1888

Genus Cyphonoxia Reitter, 1889

The genus Cyphonoxia is present only in the Middle East and comprises 9 species.

Cyphonoxia praestabilis Reitter, 1889

Genus Melolontha Fabricius, 1775

The the genus Melolontha is present only in the Palaearctic region and comprises 59 species in 2 subgenera: Melolontha Fabricius, 1775 (59 species) and Tocama Reitter, 1902 (2 species).

(click to enlarge)
Paramera of Melolontha European species, from Baraud, 1992
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Paramera of Melolontha of Near East, from Petrovitz (modified)

Melolontha (Melolontha) albida Frivaldszky, 1835
Melolontha (Melolontha) anita Reitter, 1902
Melolontha (Melolontha) excisicauda Balthasar, 1936

Genus Polyphyllla Harris, 1841

In the Palaearctic region the genus Polyphylla comprises 34 species in 7 subgenera: Polyphylla Harris, 1841 (14 species), Centrasiobia Semenov, 1902 (1 species), Grananoxia Brenske, 1890 (2 species), Granida Motschoulsky, 1862 (5 species), Gynexophylla Medvedev, 1951 (8 species), Mesopolyphylla Medvedev, 1951 (2 species), Xerasiobia Medvedev, 1951 (3 species). Several species of Polyphylla are also present in the Neoarctic Region.

Polyphylla (Polyphylla) olivieri Laporte, 1840